You have no items in your bag. get the Epoch

**£0.00**

Friday, 08 February 2013 13:47 ## More on 3D time

Electromagnetic and Strong Nuclear ‘unification’ in 3D time?

In particle physics we observe ‘Charge Quantisation’. If particles have electric charges they always exhibit a charge of 1.602 x 10^{-19} coulombs, or occasionally a multiple thereof, the basic charge on the electron or proton.

Now the quarks which seemingly compose baryons (such as the proton) and mesons apparently must carry fractional charges of one third or two thirds of this to account for the various types of observable baryons or mesons, although the quarks themselves remain unobservable individually.

If quarks carry 1/3 or 2/3 fractional electric charges we can still perhaps explain how they hold together as ‘whole’ electric charges using conventional strong nuclear chromodynamic forces based on gluons. However if fractional electric charges underlie the basic quantum of charge then conventional models cannot account for how fractional charges can stick together to form the charge on an electron.

HD8 models electric charge as arising from the spins of quantised units of spacetime along all three axes of time. Thus a quantum of basic electric charge has three more or less inseparable components. Quarks also apparently have a single colour charge but all observable particles manifest as ‘colour neutral’ by having either 3 or +1&-1 configurations. Now in HD8, colour charges also arise from spins of spacetime about the three axes of time, and this seems to allow quarks some kind of quasi-stability as 1 colour / 1 anticharge or one colour / two charge configurations, where colour partially stands in for charge.

However if this model can explain charge quantisation and the existence of colour charge then it throws into question the existence of a ‘colour force’.

Conventional strong nuclear ‘forces’ come in two types, the forces which holds quarks together in baryons and mesons, and the forces which hold the baryon particles the proton and neutron together in atomic nuclei. Unobservable gluons supposedly act as the force carriers for the former whilst the observable mesons such as pions supposedly act as the force carriers for the latter.

Yet in HD8 the geometry of spacetime itself accounts for the charge quantisation, ‘quark confinement’ and the colour neutrality of observable particles. Thus no inter-quark forces need to exist and colour charge merely adds mass to a particle, in a similar way to ‘generational charge’ which merely adds mass without creating an additional force.

However this model still needs to explain the forces between nucleons such as protons and neutrons. This so called ‘residual’ nuclear force actually accounts for the vast energies liberated in nuclear fission and fusion reactions which appear far greater than the energies liberated from the electromagnetic forces underlying chemical reactions.

The electric charges in chemical reactions operate at the distance scales of entire atoms, but if similar charges operate at nuclear distances the forces become immensely stronger as the following calculations show: -

Charge on electron/proton = 1.602 x 10^{-19} coulombs.

Force between charges, F = kq_{1}q_{2}/r^{2}

Where k = 9 x 10^{9} Nm^{2}/C^{2}

Nucleon radius 1.5 x 10^{-15}m

Hydrogen atom radius 2.5 x 10^{-10}m

Force in hydrogen = 9 x 10^{9} x (1.6 x 10^{-19})^{2 } / (2.5 x 10^{-10})^{2} = 3.68 x 10^{-9} N

Force at nuclear distances = 9 x 10^{9} x (1.6 x 10^{-19})^{2 } / (1.5 x 10^{-15})^{2} = 102 N

Thus we see that at nuclear distances, electric charges can create the sort of macroscopic forces ** per particle**characteristic of nuclear reactions.

Now consider that stable atomic nuclei can only exist with neutrons to somehow moderate the electric repulsions between protons. Consider the electric charges on the constituent quarks of the proton and neutron (here multiplied by 3 to eliminate fractions for convenience, but to preserve ratios.).

Electric charge in proton quarks, uud, 2 2 -1. Electric charge in neutron quarks, udd, 2 -1 -1

Proton +2 +2 -1

Neutron -1 -1 +2

Now we know that protons and neutrons have a finite radius, they do not appear to consist of point particles like leptons as they have internal components which we call quarks. If these quarks have some mobility within the nucleons then the nucleons can exhibit a dipole moment resulting from a degree of charge separation. The majority of the possible configurations of dipole moments between various arrangements of the above charges give a markedly attractive effect which can easily explain the so called ‘residual’ strong nuclear forces.

In conclusion, whilst nucleon electric dipole moments can perhaps explain the strength of nuclear energy, the explanation of charge quantisation, quark confinement and colour neutrality purely in terms of the structure of a spacetime metric with 3 dimensions of time seems the most interesting result.