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Thursday, 08 March 2012 13:36 ## HD8 Addendum

Following some email exchanges I present some further thoughts on the Hyperspin Eight Dimensional hypothesis of fundamental particles. Fundamental particle physics strikes me as important for several reasons, firstly because our current incomplete understanding of the subject may conceal knowledge that may enable us to develop new technologies such as starships. Secondly because we cannot hope to understand cosmology completely until we have understood the universe at the quantum level as well. Thirdly because one would expect to find evidence for the metaphysics implied by magic showing up at the basal levels of reality. In this case, evidence for the existence of three dimensional time, and a small overall positive spacetime curvature.

Some supplementary thoughts to the original HD8 paper on this site:

1) The Euclidian spatial axes s1, s2, s3 used to denote particle spins do not imply any sort of preferential or global system of coordinates. They denote directions orthogonal to the direction of the curvature axes s4 and t4. (The same goes for the three temporal axes t1, t2, t3.)

2) The direction of curvature axes s4 and t4 corresponds to locally defined gravitational/acceleration gradients (equivalence principle). All particle interactions imply an acceleration of some kind, and its direction defines the curvature axes.

3) Field effects do not depend on the exchange of so called ‘virtual’ bosons. All ‘field’ effects depend on various types of spacetime curvature induced by particle spins in various dimensions. Thus for example electrostatic and magnetic fields arise from exotic forms of spacetime curvature, not from the exchange of virtual photons. They can have repulsive or attractive effects depending on whether the spins match or not.

4) Real bosons arise only from the acceleration of fermions and they only have repulsive effects. (For example the mutual recoil of electrons exchanging real photons.)

5) Current descriptions of nuclear forces do not make much sense. The hypothesis of unobservable Quarks and Gluons used to explain the activities of the observable Hadrons (Baryons and Mesons) does not give a convincing description of what holds atomic nuclei together if we persist in regarding virtual gluons and virtual mesons as the carriers of the strong nuclear and residual nuclear forces.

Although protons mutually repel and no atomic nucleus can consist of just multiple protons, the exchange of virtual colour-anticolour Mesons between Protons and Neutrons supposedly allows atomic nuclei to form. However by this mechanism we would expect Neutron clusters of arbitrarily large number to form as well; and they plainly don’t, except under extreme stellar gravitational collapse compression.

6) Plainly the colour force has no effect outside of Hadrons apart from its gravitational/inertial spacetime effects of adding mass. Its severe range limitation in space perhaps reflects the entirely temporal nature of its component spins. Moreover the colour force (conventionally modelled as a SU3 symmetry) appears to have the same symmetry as the electromagnetic force (conventionally modelled as SU1 symmetry) if we regard the charge on the electron as -3 rather than -1, for then both electromagnetic and colour charges only manifest as plus or minus 3 in Fermions and W Bosons, and plus and minus one combined in Mesons and Photons, (and plus and minus three in Z Bosons).

7) Some form of charge polarisation leading to the sort of electrostatic attraction observed between charged and neutral objects may well explain the residual nuclear force binding Protons to Neutrons. Deep Inelastic Scattering of Baryons shows that they behave as if they had a definite size and some internal structure which we describe as Quarks. Now using the quark model, Protons have within them electromagnetic charges of +2, +2, and -1 whilst Neutrons have charges of +2, -1 and -1. If we try various polarisation arrangements of these charges and try pairing them up for attractive or repulsive effects we find the following:

N – N. Repulsive effects dominate.

P – P. Repulsive effects dominate even more strongly*.

P – N. Attractive effects dominate.

8) Conclusions.

a) Electrostatic fields bind Protons to Neutrons in atomic nuclei, not the exchange of virtual Mesons. Real Mesons arise from violent Baryon accelerations only.

b) Virtual Gluon exchange does not bind Quarks together into Baryons or Mesons. The existence of such Hadrons arises from the stability of only plus or minus 3 colour spins in Baryons or plus and minus colour spins in Mesons.

c) Real Gluons would only arise from impossibly energetic Hadron accelerations; the Gluon hypothesis thus appears superfluous.

d) Predictions:

(i) HD8 does not exclude a ‘Duon’ Boson having plus and minus two electromagnetic spins and presumably a mass below that of the Z Boson, nor does it exclude Mesons with plus and minus two colour spins, although these may have huge masses and low stabilities. It does however exclude the Higgs Boson, if Yog-Sothoth does not deceive me.

(ii) Protonium will not exist in collapsed stars*.

(iii) Gravitational fields arise from spacetime curvature not from the exchange of virtual Gravitons. Real Gravitons in quantities detectable as gravity waves would only arise from the acceleration of very large masses.