Replacing the Big Bang Theory.

The Big Bang Theory has dominated the scientific cosmology of humanity for the last half century, it has become the official scientific creation myth.

The so called Standard Model, or LCDM (Lambda-Cold Dark Matter) has the observable universe erupting from an infinitesimally small point of almost infinite density and temperature and then expanding to what we can currently observe over a 13.8 billion year period, driven by a mysterious inflation field and then by a mysterious dark energy (Lambda), and modified by a mysterious form of dark matter (CDM).

Most lay people seem to accept this with a vague sense of wonder and a shrug, well it sounds crazy, but the scientists assure us of its truth, in fact, they often become irritatingly insistent and almost religious about it.

Philosophically the theory sounds very unattractive and nihilistic for it implies that the universe began with a cataclysm and will end eventually in another or merely fade away to a diffuse entropic mist.

Several Philosophers have commented that the cosmologists who built this theory have taken such gross liberties with the scientific method that it does not constitute a proper scientific theory at all now. They have let unconfirmed hypotheses run away with themselves and forced the observational data to fit them, despite that this has led to a ridiculous proliferation of unconfirmed sub-hypotheses which merely render the whole edifice less falsifiable, not more accurate.

The LCDM-Big Bang theory has entered a crisis phase, it becomes increasingly difficult to fit the observational data into the model without first distorting it through a prism of assumptions which then become part of the theory. The theory has become path-dependent, having taken a wrong turning a long while ago when cosmological redshift became interpreted as recession velocity in a metric expansion of spacetime.

It seems analogous to what would happen if a complex quantitative theory of chemistry had developed on the old basis of earth, air, fire, water, and phlogiston, yes you probably could erect a theory based on this rather than on atoms and elements, but it would become ever more complicated and grotesque and full of sub hypotheses about the phlogisticated forms of fiery-air that have negative-earth. A similar thing happened in solar system astronomy centuries ago, in an attempt to preserve the earth-centric Ptolemaic system in the face of new observations, astronomers ended up creating a baroque system of Epicycles containing ever more circles within circles until the heliocentric model replaced the whole edifice at a stroke.

A seminal breakthrough has recently occurred in Hypersphere Cosmology. The apparently excessively fast rotation of galaxies turns out not to arise from the presence of a mysterious and otherwise undetectable substance dubbed ‘dark matter’ which has by now become woven into the fabric of the fraying tapestry of the LCDM model. Rather, this excess rotation arises from the same mechanism which prevents the collapse of the hypersphere of the universe.

v(r) = v_{i}(r) + wr

Where v(r) means the rotation velocity of a galaxy at radius r.

And v_{i} means the rotation velocity of a galaxy at radius r expected from the observed distribution of the ordinary matter within it.

And w means an angular velocity peculiar to each galaxy, which when multiplied by the radius r and added to v_{i} gives the observed rotation.

This comes from the work of Roy Gomel and Tomer Zimmerman 2019

https://www.galaxyrotationcurves.com/

https://www.preprints.org/manuscript/201908.0046/v1

It struck me that the w factor equals an angular velocity component posited for any dust like cloud of gravitationally bound matter in the work of Kurt Gödel 1949.

https://journals.aps.org/rmp/pdf/10.1103/RevModPhys.21.447

w = 2 sqrt (pi G d)

Where for a galaxy, the density d needs to include the entire ordinary mass of the galaxy and the entire volume of the spherical gas halo around it.

Thus, finally;

The Galactic Rotation Equation: -

v(r) = v_{i}(r) + 2 sqrt (pi G d) r

This equation works well for the closer galaxies where we can actually observe their gas halos.

Example calculation here: - https://www.specularium.org/component/k2/item/290-rotation-of-the-triangulum-m33-galaxy

Gödel acquired immortal fame for his Incompleteness Theorem (and his profound eccentricity). Now perhaps his largely ignored 1949 paper which derives angular velocities from Einstein’s Field Equations of Relativity will also find its place in history.

This elegant solution solves the problem of galactic rotation curves without invoking a mysterious ‘dark matter’ or by modifying Newtonian or Relativistic dynamics.

With all the main principles and equations in place and in alignment with observational data now, (The Hypersphere Equation, The Hypersphere Vorticitation Equation, The Redshift-Distance Equation, The Hyperspherical Lensing Equation, and the Galactic Rotation Equation, and so on), the LCDM-Big Bang Theory now looks finished and due for replacement by a Hypersphere Cosmology. This looks simpler and more philosophically satisfying and it has greater predictive power. Academically respectable looking papers will have to get past the peer reviewers and censors who guard the gates of prestigious journals. This may take a while.

Cosmologists can then spend the following decades exploring the consequences of the new paradigm. As it contains an element of Gödel that may include some form of time travel or retro-causation.

My thanks to those who have followed these threads over the years, indulged the many speculations and mistakes, and got in touch with encouragement, mathematics, and corrections. The wastepaper basket remains the theorists most powerful tool as Einstein observed.

Einstein appeared to have lost the argument with Lemaitre and retracted his Cosmological Constant, describing it as his greatest blunder, and he accepted the expansion hypothesis instead.

Nearly a century of increasing baroque cosmological nonsense resulted from this as theorists attempted to force an interpretation of every new item of observational data into the expansion paradigm.

If Einstein had looked more closely at Gödel’s metric, he might have realised that between them they had got the basics right - the first time.

Incidentally, the cracks in the LCDM-BB model just became fatal wounds: -

https://www.nature.com/articles/s41550-019-0906-9

(The data from the Planck satellite now strongly indicates a closed spherical universe.)

https://journals.aps.org/prl/abstract/10.1103/PhysRevLett.124.081803

(Insufficient matter-antimatter asymmetry exists for the universe to have arisen from a Big Bang.)

A considerable number of mopping up operations remain until LCDM-Big Bang theory unconditionally surrenders to a Hypersphere Cosmology. Yet we have arrived at the beginning of the end and can start reinterpreting all the awkward interpretations of observational data that disfigure the LCDM-BB model and build a better one.

I hope to participate in that process but also to devote time to making better sense of the current mess of interpretations of Quantum Theory. Hypersphere mechanics and three-dimensional time may have a part to play here. May Azathoth grant me the time and the inspiration.

Few things seem to bring more relaxation, refreshment and relief from the rigours of the library, the conjuratorium, the laboratory, and the scriptorium than some hours spent in the shed of Chateaux Chaos.

This emerges in celebration of the completion of the project: -

It has the look and feel of calcedony yet it consists of [NH-(CH_{2})_{5}-CO]_{n} just four elements, mainly gases, polymerised to make what we commonly call Nylon. As a sculptural material it has interesting properties, translucent and rather like a heavy hardwood but without the grain, it absorbs surface dyes quite readily. Apparently, you can also melt and cast it at some risk, I may give that a go.

This wand bears the sigils and notae of The Hypersphere, Apophenia, and Yog-Sothoth on its facing facets. (Consult the EPOCH for details).

Religion usually proves useless in the face of plague, however I did notice that an enterprisig church had placed in the entrance to its graveyard, an honesty box, a pile of shovels, and a big notice saying 'Dig Your Own - £50'

Conjure for clear skies, sunshine, and hot weather. It may help with the situation. With the aircraft contrails mostly gone now it should become easier.