Hi, Yog-Sothoth here again...
With a bit more on those pesky quarks...
Consider the flowing data in support of the idea that within baryons, u quarks may consist of superpositions of various amounts of u, c, and t quarks, and particularly that d quarks may consist of superpositions of various amounts of d, s, and b quarks. This idea offers an alternative to the conventional idea of attributing virtually all of the mass of the proton and neutron, and hence of virtually all matter, to gluons.
Free Quark Masses, in MeV.
u = 1.7 – 3.1 c = 1290 t = 173,000
d = 4.1 – 5.7 s = 100 b = 4,190
Baryon Masses, in MeV.
Proton = (uud) 938 Neutron = (ddu) 939
One Strange. uds = 1115 uds = 1192 dds = 1197 uus = 1189
Two Strange. uss = 1314 dss = 1321
One Charm. udc = 2286 udc = 2452 uuc = 2454 ddc = 2453
One Strange, One Charm. usc = 2467 usc = 2575 dsc = 2470
Two Strange, One Charm. ssc 2695
Two Charm. dcc 3581
One Bottom. udb = 5620 uub = 5807 ddb = 5815* (*bottom sigma)
One Strange, One Bottom. dsb = 5790* (*bottom xi)
Two Strange, One Bottom. ssb = 6165
Baryons apparently non-existing. usb, ucb, anything containing a t.
1) The replacement of a d quark by a HEAVIER s quark changes a Bottom Sigma into a LIGHTER Bottom Xi, whereas one might have expected a considerably heavier one.
2) We should perhaps not expect baryons to contain t quarks because of their exceptional energy, nevertheless only the dsb Bottom Xi carries a quark of each generation.
3) We observe the ssb but not the usb or the ucb.
4) The dsb Bottom Xi thus appears to exhibit an unusual stability in the form of a lower energy.